What is the difference between a personal paternity test and our legal paternity test?
The sample collection in a personal paternity screening tests are completed by the individuals involved in the test in the privacy of the homes. The photographs, finger printing and strict chain of custody are not implemented thus making the results inadmissible in a court of law. The alleles (genes) examined, accuracy, and the results are identical to the legal paternity test. The personal paternity screening test is for circumstances where legal proceedings are not needed. The results of a personal paternity screening test can not be used in a cour t of law.

What is a buccal swab?
A buccal swab is a specialized applicator with a sponge or Dacron tip, which is rubbed on the inside of the check to collect epithelial cells. This procedure is noninvasive and pain free.

Are there differences in test results obtained using buccal swabs versus blood or other tissues?
No, DNA test results are the same because the DNA is the same in all nucleated cells of a person's body. We use the most readily available source of DNA for paternity testing. The DNA we use is located inside the mouth, buccal cells. Every cell in body, except for red blood cells, contains the same DNA. Red bloods do not contain DNA. All DNA containing cells, including cells from buccal swabs, hair follicles and urine specimens, are suitable specimens for DNA analysis (1-3).

Are buccal swabs samples contaminated because they are taken from the mouth?
No, the swabs may contain bacteria and food but the tests are very specific for human DNA. The DNA from bacteria, food, or other organisms will not affect the tests.

Are there age limits on paternity testing?
No, the collection of umbilical cord blood at birth or the use of buccal swabs allows for testing at any age. Before DNA technology became prevalent the only way to determine paternity was to analyze Human Luekocyte Antigen (HLA). HLAs are only expressed on red and white blood cell therefore, you had to use blood and you could not collect blood until the child was six month old.

Are the results admissible in court?
Yes, the identification, (photos and fingerprints), strict chain of custody and documented procedures produce results that are admissible in a court of law. In addition, expert witness services can be arranged.

Are the test results and samples confidential?
Yes, all client information as well as the test results are strictly confidential. No information is released except to persons directly involved in the test or to courts or regulatory agencies.

How do I pay for the tests?
Tests can be paid for by Money Order, Discover, Master Card, American Express, Visa or cash.

Can parentage be established for a deceased or missing individual?
Yes, if blood or tissues are collected postmortem and properly stored, the sample can be used by our laboratory for paternity testing. If the alleged father's parents are available, they can be used in grandparentage testing. In addition we are able to extract DNA from a wide variety of sources including licked envelope, gum, a used Kleenex and many more sources, see our forensic paternity testing section for more information.

Can parentage be established if the mother does not participate in the test?
Yes, the 16 allele human identification kit is so powerful that the mother does not have to participate in the test in order to determine paternity. You may have noticed that some companies require the mother, this is because when you only you use 7-9 allele you MUST include the mother in order to determine paternity.

Do samples from all parties have to be collected at the same time?
No, arrangements can be made to collect samples from people at different times and/or places at no additional charge. In addition, we pre-assign case number so when the sample are returned separately we can match them to the correct person.

Can different types of specimens (e.g., blood and buccal swabs) be used in the same case?
Yes, DNA tests are the same because the DNA is the identical in all nucleated cells.

Can accurate results be obtained from brothers or related individuals of the alleged father?
Yes, the laboratory should be notified of circumstances involving relatives. Although related individuals have similar genetic markers, additional testing can be performed until one man is excluded.

What do I need to bring to the sample collection appointment?
Legal photo identification (e.g. drivers license, State ID card, passport).

Can eye color indicate paternity?
No. In humans, there are three genes that are known to control eye color. The expression of these three genes can explain typical patterns of inheritance of brown, green, and blue eye colors. However, they don't explain everything. Grey, hazel, multiple shades of blue, brown, green, and grey are not explained by these three genes. The molecular basis of these genes is not known; what proteins they produce and how these proteins affect eye color are not known. Eye color at birth is often blue turning, turning darker color as the child matures. Why eye color can change over time is not known. An additional gene for green is also postulated, and there are reports of blue-eyed parents producing brown-eyed children (which the three known genes can't easily explain [mutations, modifier genes that suppress brown, and additional brown genes are all potential explanations).
Bottom line: Eye color can be VERY complicated. If you are in doubt get a DNA test.

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DNA Genetics Lab
1840 State Street

Hamden, CT 06517
Tel: 203.624.0492
Fax: 203.306.3277



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